李大钊在五四运动期间宣传马克思主义的基本方式研究

时间:2018-09-18 作者:博学论文网
  An Analysis of Li Dazhao's Basic Ways of Propagating Marxism in the May 4th Period
  
  Abstract:In China, Li Dazhao first raised the banner of Marxism and was the earliest disseminator and the most active propagator of Marxism in China. During the May 4th movement, he promoted Marxism comprehensively and systematically in various ways, which made Marxism widely spread in China. Therefore, he made a very important contribution. Li Dazhao paid attention to the combination of publicity work and organization work. He firstly advocated that Marxism must be combined with China's specific national conditions, which played a positive role in promoting the establishment of the CPC. In new era, we must always adhere to the guiding position of Marxism, to the solution of theoretical problems with the latest Marxism, and to the better propaganda, research and development of Marxism. The discussion of Li Dazhao's spread of Marxism during the May 4th period undoubtedly has an important significance.
  
  Keyword:Li Dazhao; Marxism; propaganda; basic ways;
  
  Li Dazhao grew up in a semi-colonial and semi-feudal old China full of internal and external troubles. The brutal plunder of imperialism and the cruel exploitation of feudalism made Li Dazhao always cherish a great ambition of worrying about the country and the people and saving the nation from peril. But where is the truth? What is the way to save the nation? People have been in ignorance. The October Revolution opened a new chapter in the history of the world revolution, and also brought the glory of Marxism-Leninism to China in the dark. Under the leadership of Lenin and the Bolshevik Party, the broad masses of workers and peasants in Russia overthrew the reactionary rule of the landlord-bourgeoisie, established the state power of the proletariat, and scientific socialism changed from ideal to reality. This exulting Li Dazhao, who is struggling for the truth of saving the nation and the people. He sang the praises of the Russian October Revolution in succession, and at the same time, he developed great enthusiasm for Marxist theory. In Li Dazhao's view, China, a big semi-colonial and semi-feudal country, urgently needed a new theory like Marxism to guide the new revolution, so he began to consciously study and study Marxist theory. Li Dazhao's activities of disseminating and propagating Marxist theory were mainly concentrated in the May 4th period. During this period, what ways did he introduce and disseminate Marxist theory?
  
  1. Write articles and set up publications to publicize Marx doctrine.
  
  From the second half of 1918 to the May 4th Movement, Li Dazhao published several articles to publicize the October Socialist Revolution and Marxism-Leninism. The October Revolution and the Bolsheviks were regarded as the beasts of the flood. Socialism and Marxism were regarded as heretical heresies. With the reactionaries all over the world attacking the October Revolution, Li Dazhao broke through the shackles and firmly expressed his support for the October Socialist Revolution. On July 1, 1918, he published in the third issue of the quarterly magazine, The Comparison of the French and Russian Revolution, which was the earliest article in China hailing the great victory of the Russian October Socialist Revolution. In November 1918, he published the Victory of the Commons and the Victory of Bolshevism in Volume V, No. 5 of New Youth, which became the earliest Marxist literature in China. In the following important articles, such as Re-discussing Issues and Doctrines, My View of Marxism and so on, we began to publicize Marxism systematically, and attacked the trend of reformism with a clear-cut banner. Among them, in the “French-Russian Revolution of a comparative view,” Li Dazhao systematically analyzed and clearly expounded the essential differences between the Russian October Revolution and the French Revolution in 1789. He pointed out that “just as the French Revolution heralded the world's entry into the bourgeois era, the Russian October Revolution heralded the arrival of the socialist revolution era, is the”dawn of a new civilization in the world“[1], for the”dawn of a new civilization in the world“, we”can only look forward to meet“[2]. A few months later, when confused by the victory of the German-Austrian alliance in World War I between Britain, the United States and other allied countries, and what ”justice over power“ was preached, Li Dazhao delivered a famous speech (later written as an article) on November 5. He pointed out that ”we celebrate not for the people of that country or part of that country, but for the common people of the world“ [3]. Li Dazhao revealed the fundamental contradiction between the two imperialist groups in World War I from the root of class and economy, and correctly analyzed the causes of the outbreak of the war, which showed that he had a clear understanding of the nature of imperialism. Mao Zedong pointed out later that the Chinese people's understanding of the essence of imperialism rose from the perceptual stage to the rational stage and ”began around the May 4th Movement in 1919“ [4]. Without doubt, Li Dazhao was the first to have such knowledge. Li Dazhao's profound understanding and correct analysis of imperialism is an important prerequisite for his vigorous propaganda of Marxism. At the same time, Li Dazhao also published in New Youth magazine ”The Victory of Bolshevism“, in which he publicly praised Bolshevism, that is, Leninism, which clearly attributed the universal awakening of the post-war people and the victory of the October Revolution to the victory of Marxism-Leninism. He highly praised the proletarian revolutionary leaders, Marx and Lenin, and stood firmly on their side. This article is an open and clear declaration accepted and actively publicizing Marx doctrine. If the above-mentioned articles are closely related to the attitude and understanding of Marxism, but they are not yet his conscious and systematic propaganda of Marxism, then published in May 1919, ”My View of Marxism,“ it can be said that it is a more systematic introduction of Marxism. This paper systematically expounds the three closely related parts of Marxism, and points out that ”all his three theories are inseparable, and the theory of class struggle is just like a golden line, which links the three principles fundamentally“ [5]. The publication of this article shows that Li Dazhao has acquired a relatively systematic Marxist theoretical accomplishment, and at the same time indicates that he has been sublimated into a great Marxist, indicating that advanced Chinese intellectuals have promoted the spread of Marxism in China to a new stage.
  
  During this period, Li Dazhao also wrote many articles, such as The World Trend after the War, Real Liberation, Class Competition and Mutual Assistance, and actively propagated and studied Marxism. At the same time, he founded the Morning Bell, participated in the editorial work of New Youth, served as the director of the editorial department of Junior China, and served as the editor of Jiayin Daily. At the end of 1918, Chen Duxiu and others founded the weekly commentary. These publications became the main position to promote Marxism during the May 4th Movement and played a key role in promoting Marxism.
  
  2, set up and transform various societies and groups to publicize Marx doctrine.
  
  In January 1918, Li Dazhao succeeded Zhang Shizhao as director of Peking University Library. During this period, he spent a lot of time and energy actively forming and reforming various societies, supporting and helping various progressive groups, and vigorously promoting Marxism. Opening the Journal of Peking University at that time, the name of Li Dazhao can be found in the records of activities of many societies and associations. In the spring of 1920, with the support and help of Li Dazhao, 19 advanced Chinese intellectuals, Deng Zhongxia and Huang Sunflower, initiated and founded the ”Peking University Max (i.e. Marx) Doctrine Research Society“, which translated and collated a large number of Marxist theoretical documents and made a lot of preparations for the publicity and study of Marxism. Pad work. Li Dazhao helped the Institute raise funds to build a library called Kang Munizhai. They actively collect Marxist original works and related books by donating, purchasing and borrowing from the library of Peking University. At the beginning of 1922, according to the Notice of the Marxist Theory Research Association, there were more than 40 kinds of books in English and 20 kinds of books in Chinese. At the same time, the Institute set up a translation room with three translation groups in German, English and French. It has translated the original Marxist works such as the Communist Manifesto and the Capital Volume I. In addition, the Institute also held lectures and seminars on learning and publicizing Marxism, and its learning and publicity methods were flexible and varied. In addition to this, at the end of 1920, Li Dazhao and Fei Juetian initiated the establishment of the Socialist Research Association of Peking University, which was mainly engaged in the propaganda of socialism and Marxism in combination with advanced social elements who had socialist beliefs and were committed to the study of socialist issues. The establishment and activities of the above two research associations have more widely propagated Marxist and socialist ideas and laid an important ideological and organizational foundation for the eventual establishment of the Communist Party of China.
  
  At the same time, Li Dazhao also actively participated in the transformation of the ”Youth China society“. The Society was founded in June 1918 by Li Dazhao, Wang Guangqi and others. It is an important society with the longest history, the largest number of members and the widest distribution during the May 4th Movement. Its aim is to create a young China through the cultural movement of the spirit of undergraduate science. In October 1920, Deng Zhongxia proposed to reform the society, starting with the revision of its basic tenet. He believed that its previous tenet was ”space-wide, to choose a doctrine to enrich it“, and that this doctrine could be defined as socialism [8]. In this way, with his efforts, he actively assisted Li Dazhao in reforming the Young China Society, and eventually transformed it into a progressive group that believed in Marxism and socialism. At the same time, Li Dazhao also actively supported the activities of the New Trend Society, assisted students in Beijing to save the Congress, and contributed to the publication of their publications. In short, the activities of many societies and associations during this period were branded by Li Dazhao, who played a positive role in propagating Marxism.
  
  3, propagate and defend Marx doctrine in the struggle against the trend of anti Marx thought.
  
  In the process of introducing and propagating Marxism, there has always been a problem of struggling against the anti-Marxist trend of thought. For this reason, Li Dazhao has made arduous efforts. First of all, in July 1919, Hu Shih, the representative of the right wing of the bourgeoisie, publicized pragmatism and reformism, openly hostile to the Russian October Revolution, and published a paper entitled ”More Research on Some Issues, Less Discussion on Doctrine“, openly opposing Marxism. In order to defend the truth of Marxism-Leninism, Li Dazhao immediately published the article ”Re-discussing Issues and Doctrines“, and launched a great debate with Hu Shi on ”Problems and Doctrines“, that is, whether to adhere to Marxism. Li Dazhao pointed out: ”although you study your social problems, most people in the society have nothing to do with it.“ That social problem is still an unsolved hope, and the solution of that social problem can still not affect reality ”[9]. Closely related to this point is Li Dazhao's Refutation of Hu Shi's objection to fundamentally solve the point of view. He went on to point out that for a country like ours, which has not overthrown the old rule and won a new regime, there must be a fundamental solution for a certain period of time in order to have the hope of solving one specific problem after another. He pointed out the necessity of carrying out the revolution with the concrete facts of the victory of the October Revolution and negated the road of reformism. At the same time, he firmly pointed out that Marx Lenin doctrine is a theory, proposition and method to solve all problems. If we do not understand “doctrine”, we will not understand the basic laws governing the development of things, and then “concrete problems” can not be solved at all. He went on to emphasize that “our social movements, on the one hand, must study practical problems, on the other hand, they must propagate idealism” [11]. Through this debate, not only the bourgeois reformists have exposed the nature of opposing Marxism in essence, but also the extraordinary difficulty of propagating and defending the truth of Marxism.
  
  Secondly, Li Dazhao resolutely responded to the remarks made by the bourgeois reformists Liang Qichao and Zhang Dongsun that they advocated social reform doctrine, that they wanted to set up capitalist “industrial” factories in China and lead China to the capitalist track. He believed that China was indeed inferior to Europe, the United States and Japan in developing capitalist industries. But compared with the proletariat directly oppressed by capitalism in other countries, the capitalist economic oppression suffered by the Chinese people for a long time is even more serious. Therefore, China must not develop capitalist industry and must not take the capitalist road. At the same time, Li Dazhao published the article “China's Socialism and World Capitalism”, profoundly criticized the bourgeois reformism theory, and further opened up the road of Marxism in China. In addition, Li Dazhao also actively carried out the struggle against anarchism, and made a lot of arduous work for the continued spread of Marxism.
  
  4, propagate Marx doctrine in education and training young people.
  
  Li Dazhao was the first person to teach Marxism in a Chinese University forum. Through teaching, he propagated Marxism in the Marxist education and training of young intellectuals. Beginning in September 1920, Li Dazhao took the lead in opening a lecture on “Modern Politics” in the Department of Politics at Peking University. The lectures were mainly about Soviet Russia after the October Revolution, workers'movements around the world and the labor situation in China. The following month, Li Dazhao began to set up nearly ten colleges and universities in Peking University, including the Department of Economics, Law, History, Beijing Higher Women's Normal University, China University, Chaoyang University and Beijing Normal University, respectively, including “historical materialism”, “socialist and social movement”, “socialist future”, “feminist movement history” and “sociology”. A door course. Through the teaching, Li Dazhao introduced socialist and Marxist scientific theories to the students, and was welcomed by the majority of students. When he taught the course of Marx's Economic Theory at Peking University, he said to his students emphatically, “If you can study Marx's theory while you are still studying, it will be my greatest hope for China to produce some people who really understand Marx's theory and really shine in China in the future.” [12]. In addition to his lectures, Li Dazhao was invited to give speeches in some progressive societies and academies. Under the influence of his propaganda and education, a large number of progressive young intellectuals accepted or tended to Marxism. They read extensively Marxist books, propagated Marxism in their study and practice, spread new knowledge and advanced theories to the people, and gradually established their faith in Marxism. At that time, Li Dazhao's office and residence in Peking University were often the place where progressive young students gathered, discussed, propagated and studied Marxism. A generation of revolutionary youth grew up under his influence and education. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others later embarked on the revolutionary road, without exception. Mao Zedong later recalled that it was under the influence of Li Dazhao that he embarked on the road of Marxism, which began in the second half of 1918 when he worked and studied in the library of Peking University. Before and after the May 4th Movement, there were still many young revolutionaries influenced by Li Dazhao's thought, such as Deng Zhongxia, Huang Sunflower, Zhao Shiyan, Zhang Tailei and so on. In addition, the older generation of proletarian revolutionaries Chen Yi, Deng Yingchao and others have also been affected by Li Dazhao and help. It can be said that Li Dazhao was the guide of a generation of revolutionary youth during the May 4th and the First Revolution. Influenced and educated by him, a group of revolutionary youth quickly recognized Marxism and united under the banner of Marxism, which created good conditions for the development of the revolutionary cause in the future.
  
  5, combine propaganda Marx doctrine with leading worker movement.
  
  54 after the outbreak of the anti imperialist patriotic movement, Li Dazhao immediately threw himself into and actively led the campaign. When the Beiyang warlords seized the students, he stood up and called for the establishment of a faculty and Staff Union to actively organize the rescue of the arrested students; and mobilized the members of the Marxist doctrine research society to launch propaganda in several major cities throughout the country to strongly support the students'anti-imperialist patriotic action [8]. He also published a large number of battle letters, calling on people to “destroy the snares” for the national independence and liberation of a thorough struggle. On May 18, 1919, Li Dazhao's “Secret Diplomacy and the World of Robbers” was published in the Weekly Review, which strongly called on people to “deny secret diplomacy”, “transform the world of robbers” and “practise national self-determination”[14], thus revealing in depth the nature of imperialist aggression. At the same time, many articles by Li Dazhao correctly analyzed the deep-seated problems of Chinese society from Marxist viewpoints were published in the National Journal and other journals. These remarks greatly armed people's thinking, so that people more soberly understand the objectives of the struggle and rely on strength, thus greatly promoting the struggle in-depth development. These articles by Li Dazhao echo the articles published in the journals such as Xiangjiang Review, Tianjin Student Union Newspaper, etc. They mainly introduce the Marxist theory of the relationship between economic foundation and superstructure, the theory of social development motive force and the theory that the people create history, which further publicizes Marx. Ism had a great influence on the whole ideological circle at that time.
  
  Li Dazhao not only attached great importance to the study, study and propaganda of Marxist theory, but also first advocated the combination of Marxist propaganda with the actual movement of workers in China. The May 4th Movement is the best example of this combination. The May 4th Movement emancipated people's minds unprecedentedly and set off a wave of pursuing and learning Marxism. After the May 4th Movement, the propaganda of Marxism developed into a wide range of ideological movements, revolutionary intellectuals have embarked on the road of combining with workers and peasants, and Marxism has begun to combine with China's revolutionary practice, and guide the Chinese revolution to victory gradually. Promoted and influenced by Li Dazhao, a group of revolutionary intellectuals went deep into the masses of workers and peasants, and actively propagated Marxism by publishing popular publications and setting up night schools. In 1920, under the active organization of Li Dazhao, the “Beijing Communist Group” was established. They did a lot of work in investigating the situation of workers, propagating Marxism and leading the workers'struggle. On this basis, from 1920 to 1921, Communist groups were set up one after another, and eventually led to the establishment of the Communist Party of China.
  
  Li Dazhao first introduced and propagated Marxism in China, which laid an important foundation for the wide spread of Marxism in China after the May 4th Movement, and played an ideological enlightenment role for the obscure Chinese people to correctly understand the world revolutionary situation and the current situation of Chinese society. Li Dazhao's propaganda of Marxism has never been based on the text of the propaganda style, he can always propaganda in accordance with their own understanding, and constantly from perceptual knowledge to rational knowledge. If Li Dazhao's propaganda of Marxism before the May 4th Movement was confined to some viewpoints, then Li Dazhao's propaganda of the scientific system of Marxism after the May 4th Movement was relatively systematic. Li Dazhao's propaganda method is not only rich and unique, but also pays attention to the combination of propaganda and organizational work, and propagandizes and defends Marxism in the concrete revolutionary practice. Of course, in the course of propaganda, due to the scarcity of translations and books of Marxist theory, Li Dazhao's understanding, propaganda and Research on Marxism inevitably has some inappropriate, biased and even errors. But we can not deny Li Dazhao's role of “first fax” in the propaganda of Marxism in China. History has proved that Li Dazhao was the first resolute soldier to propagate and defend Marxism in China. A large number of works he wrote in the process of propaganda have become precious documents for us to study Marxism today. His unique way of introducing and propagating Marxism can also be used for reference.
  
  In the new era, if the Communist Party of China wants to lead the people to realize the goal of “two hundred years” and realize the Chinese dream of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, it must be guided by Marxism. We must always adhere to the Marxist position, viewpoints and methods to analyze and solve the new situation and problems in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and constantly enrich and develop Marxism, with the latest Chinese Marxism to guide the new practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The unique way Li Dazhao propagated and propagated Marxism during the May 4th Movement has given us important enlightenment. As socialism with Chinese characteristics enters a new era, we should constantly expand and enrich the propaganda methods of Marxism and propagate the truth of Marxism in a modern, pluralistic and easily accepted way. We should adhere to the sinicization, modernization and popularization of Marxism, actively guide the broad masses of Party members and the people to approach Marxism, and then become truly learned, truthful and practical Marxists.
  
  Reference
  
  [1] complete works of Li Dazhao: third volume [M]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1999:56 - 59.  
  [2] [3] [5] [9] [10] [11] [14] Li Dazhao anthology [M]. Beijing: People's Publishing House, 1958:104, 109, 177, 228, 233-234, 212-214.  
  [4] Mao Zedong Anthology: first volume [M]. Beijing: People's publishing house, 1991:289.  
  [6] Marx theory research bulletin (4) [J]. Journal of Peking University, 1922 - 02 - 6
  [7] Li Dazhao biography compiling group. Li Dazhao biography [M]. Beijing: People's publishing house, 1979:37.
  [8] Xiao Chao ran. School history of Peking University: 1898-1949[M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Education Press, 1981:92.
  [12] Li Dazhao Anthology: upper [M]. Beijing: People's publishing house, 1984:540.  
  [13] brilliant 54 [M]. Beijing: China Youth Publishing House,
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