A study of word selection techniques and translation strateg

时间:2018-07-30 作者:博学论文网

        Abstract:“Li Sao” in “Chu Ci” created the form of “Sao” poetry in Chinese literature, showing positive romanticism, and has been collected and recorded in textbooks many times, which has an important influence on the development of Chinese literature. After the Han Dynasty, the literati of the later ages did not admire Qu Yuan's praises. Li Sao is a representative part of Chu Ci. Its translation quality directly reflects the quality of the translated version. This paper, based on the English translation “Li Sao”, translated by Yang Xianyi and Dai Naidie, analyzes the selection techniques from three aspects of law, rhetoric and culture loaded words, and analyzes the translation strategies adopted to provide valuable lessons for the translators to have a certain guiding significance for the English translation work of Chinese literary classics.
  Key word:Word selection techniques; translation strategies; Yang Xianyi; Li Sao; English translation;
  The representative work of Qu Yuan, a statesman and poet of the state of Chu in the Warring States period, is the longest political lyric poem in the history of ancient Chinese poetry. It is also one of the most far-reaching works of Chu Ci, which occupies an important position in the translation of ancient books. “Li Sao” has created a “Sao” poetic form in Chinese literature, and “the poet's peculiar and romantic Association and colorful fantasies, supplemented by the description of the creep and spread out, intertwined with the real people, history and mythological characters, and intertwined the sky, the earth, the people and the illusions together. The charismatic image world shows the spirit of positive romanticism and has far-reaching influence on later generations.
  Qu Yuan opened up the source of Romanticism in Chinese literature, and its artistic creation has a great influence on the literati creation of later ages. The ”wind“ represented by ”Book of Songs“ and the ”Sao“ represented by Chu Ci formed the cornerstone of ancient Chinese literature and the two highest standards of classical poetry. However, as far as its history of communication was concerned, until 1852, ”Li Sao“ began to be introduced into the west by the German translation of the Austria Sinologist Augustus Pfizmaier (August Pfizmaier, 1808-1887)。 Shortly after that, he first published the English version of Li Sao in 1879. From this to the next hundred years, more than ten English versions of Li Sao, such as Richard Jacob, Zhai Rees, Willy and Hawkes, have been developed. In contrast, the translation of the domestic ”Li Sao“ began later. The first edition of the English translation of ”Chu Ci“ was published in 1953 and was completed by Mr. and Mrs. Yang Xianyi and Dai Naidie. Later, versions of Sun Dayu, Xu Yuanchong and Zhuo Zhenying were published in succession.
  In order to understand the unique literary nature of the representative English translation works in China more intuitively, and to provide valuable reference experience for the translators, this paper will focus on the English translation works of Mr. Yang Xianyi's ”Li Sao“ from the two aspects of the selection technique and the translation strategy. The distinctive features of word selection and translation strategies.
  一、 the literary characteristics of Li Sao and its interpretation of translation.
  From the linguistic features, the jagged form of ”Li Sao“, the changing sentence structure and the universal use of the word ”Xi“ show its distinctive features compared to the literary features of other works. From the artistic feature, ”Li Sao“ is deeply rooted in the positive and positive romanticism, and the use of Bi Xing. Contrast and add the narrative of the story to lyric. All these add to the great richness of the English translation work of Li Sao, and also increase the difficulty of translation, especially in the choice of words, more complex and diverse requirements are put forward for the translators. However, the study of word selection techniques and strategies in the process of English translation is still to be supplemented. At present, the study of Li Sao's English translation tends to flourish.
  Looking at the various studies of the translation of Li Sao in recent years, such as style, iconicity, interpersonal meaning, thinking, and hermeneutics, we use a comparative study method and compare different versions and use a unique perspective to analyze and analyze them. The combination of the different theories and the practice of translation can find many problems in translation, so that the future translators can find the characteristics and shortcomings of the translation, thus avoiding the shortcomings. (Peng Jiahai, Fan Lin, 2016), however, it is worthwhile to emphasize, ”relative, from the perspective of literary features, first to understand the connotation of poetry itself, and then to maximize the characteristics and beauty of the poetic poetry, to truly do a good job in the translation of“ Li Sao ”. From this point of view, it is very important to study the literary characteristics of the English translation of “Li Sao”. As the most basic step in translation, the use of the skills and tactics of the selection of words can be said to be the most intuitive form of the literary features of the translation, and the Research on this side of the Chinese English translation works remains to be added.
  二、 The study of word selection and Translation Strategies
  (一) word selection and literary features
  1. law
  The two languages of Chinese and English belong to different languages. The rhythm of Chinese poetry and the rhythm of English poetry have their own characteristics. In terms of literal form, Chinese characters are mostly one word and one tone, relatively stable. Due to the character based character of Chinese characters, Chinese poetry is strict in terms of number, rhythm and rhyme, so Chinese poetry is relatively neat. In English, poetry is often a line of verse one by one - the step of the syllables, which corresponds to the syllables of the Chinese characters, which are arranged by a certain law by the rereal and non reread syllables. Different arrangements form different patterns of English poetry. The length of a poem is calculated by the number of steps, so there is no definite requirement for the number of words. Therefore, English poetry does not seem to have Chinese poetry in form.
  According to the analysis of the two languages in Chinese and English, we can see that in the translation of Chinese poetry, we should pay attention to the corresponding relationship and the corresponding law, and grasp the harmony of the rhythm in the written language, so that the aesthetic value of the poetry can be reproduced in a more comprehensive way. At this point, Yang's choice of words undoubtedly shows the charm of rhyme. “Li Sao” is known as the formwork of the afterlife poetry. But Qu Yuan did not care about the rules and rhymes in Li Sao, or the language condition was far from forming the metrical verse. Therefore, although the six character poem is the main actor, there are short to five words and long crosses. There are tones in Chinese poetry, while English poetry shows the cadence of poetry according to the light and heavy pronunciation Festival. In the translation of poetry rhyme, the version of Mr. Yang Xiansheng's translation imitates the style of Dryden, and uses the heroic double rhyme, a typical English verse method, which is handled in the form of aabbccdd. Domestication translation makes the form of translation concise, balanced and orderly, and more convenient for Western readers. Such as:
  例 (1) :“路漫漫其修远兮, 吾将上下而求索”
  The way was long, and wrapped in gloom did seem,
  As I urged on to seek my vanished dream.
  This sentence does not emphasize “the long way”, but uses the on in long and the urged on in the next sentence to seek the consistency of the rhythm, and uses the inversion method, uses the seem to express the objective perspective of the clear road, and puts it at the end of the sentence. In the next half of the sentence, the word “dream” is used to refer to the content of the “claim”, and to seek the custody of seem and dream. Rhyme.
  例 (2) :“济沅湘以南征兮, 就重华而敶词”
  To barbarous south I went across the stream,
  Before the ancient I began my theme.
  Yuan Xiang refers to the yuan and Hunan water. Yang translates “Yuanxiang” into the stream, and uses a fuzzy and shallow method to deal with the place names, in order to realize the aesthetic sense of the rhythm and the phonology, and also facilitate the reading of the Western readers.
  “Li Sao” has a fine tone and a strong tone. Although Qu Yuan did not care about the rhymes and rhymes, the rhymes were natural and clear. This is largely determined by its unique language and style, especially the unique use of the word “Xi”, which not only brings beauty to the readers, but also brings some challenges to the translator. In the translation of the “Li Sao”, Mr. Yang chose to save the translation of the empty word, and the pursuit of the translation in the law, so that the English translation works also retained the artistic effect of the poetic creation itself, and brought the beauty of form and charm to the readers.
  2. rhetoric
  Rhetoric is a style mark that can not be ignored in lissao. The rhetorical markers in Chinese poetry often include personification, onomatopoeia, metaphor, allusion, exaggeration and so on. In order to reproduce the artistic conception of the original poem, the translator sometimes has to get rid of the language form of the original poem and change rhetoric as appropriate. In this regard, Yang did not neglect the importance of rhetoric while he strictly demanded the rules. Such as:
  例:“揽茹蕙以掩涕兮, 沾余襟之浪浪。”
  Andmelilotus leaves I took to stem,
  The tears that streamed down to my garment's hem.
  It can be seen that in the process of translation, Mr. Yang properly adopted the exaggerated technique and displayed the exaggerated image of the tears “wave waves” with stream in his choice of words, making the romantic feelings leap on the paper. Not only that, Mr. Yang made the static movement, conveyed the tears of “wave waves” with the verbs, and achieved the aesthetic feeling of “tears like the river soup soup”, which further rendered the sad feelings and enriched the artistic effect of the translation.
  3. culture loaded words
  In the process of translation, it is difficult for translators to find exactly the same expression with culture loaded words. Therefore, the choice of translation methods for culturally loaded words is not only a matter of skill, but also affects the accurate reproduction of the connotation of culture loaded words in the target language. (Li Dan, 2015) from the use of culture loaded words, Mr. Yang is influenced by the cultural differences between China and the West. It respects the differences in the special meanings contained in Chinese and English vocabulary, especially in the symbolic meaning, and chooses to avoid the plant names with Chinese characteristics under the different cultural backgrounds of the Chinese and Western cultures. Therefore, the names and place names in the poem are not handled properly, for example, he has translated the word “Du Lu” into “fragrant herbs”. This is also fully reflected in the translated version of Li Sao. Such as:
  例:“摄提贞于孟瞰兮, 惟庚寅吾以降。”
  When Sirius did in Spring its Light display,
  A Child was born, and Tiger marked the Day
  In this sentence, “photography” is translated into Sirius, which means Sirius. In fact, “photography” refers to the “Teague” of the chronological year, that is, the year of the Chinese culture, it is obvious that this concept was not compatible with the star name of the western ancient Greek (and ancient Egyptian) astronomy, the star of the Sirius.
  It can be seen that Mr. Yang has circumvent certain cultural connotations in order to make the translation more acceptable to readers. In the light of the principle of reading for Western readers, Mr. Yang has replaced the vocabulary of Chinese culture with a symbolic meaning in western culture instead of a certain degree of understanding in Chinese culture. From the point of view of readers' continued reading, it is an efficient method to take the appropriate word meaning replacement on the premise of adding sufficient annotation to respect the respect of cultural differences.
  (二) translation strategies
  The whole poem of Li Sao is a process of individualized struggle. It is a process of integrating all kinds of psychological activities into a whole. (Jerah Johnson, 1959) in the process of translation, the translator is bound to have a certain role in its own subjectivity, in addition to the need to choose appropriate translation techniques and strategies. Because the translator's creative personality is different, there are also differences in the understanding, feeling and evaluation of life, which also affects the creation conception, translation strategy, translation skills and the use of language, and eventually forms the diversification of the translation style. The formation of personality is influenced by innate and acquired effects, and is the result of interaction between heredity, maturity and environment. This fully explains why different translators can produce totally different translation results. This is mainly caused by different life experiences, life paths, personal accomplishment, academic background, aesthetic taste and even gender differences.
  Yang Xianyi puts “faithfulness” at the top of the principle of translation, and does not advocate that translators make too many subjective changes to the original work, which is also the main character of Mr. Yang. It is Mr. Yang who has been very knowledgeable, independent thinking and love for his country. He has translated his unique translation of “Li Sao”, and is still regarded as a classic stand on the bookshelves of many university libraries in Europe. Such as:
  例 (1) :“仆夫悲余马怀兮, 蜷局顾而不行。”
  My slaves were sad, my steeds all neighed in grief,
  And, gazing back, the earth they would not leave.
  For the word “servant husband” in the original sentence, Mr. Yang chose to be faithful to the original text and translated into slaves, which embodies the main features of his “faithfulness” in the first place of the translation principle.
  例 (2) :“举贤才而授能兮, 循绳墨而不颇。”
  Exalted were the wise, the able used,
  The rule was kept and never was abused.
  In this example, “ink” and “Huangyu” are words with specific symbols. According to Wang Yi and Zhu Xi's explanation, “rope and ink” is an auxiliary tool for carpenters to draw straight lines when making furniture. When Mr. Yang translated the words, he chose the word “rule” to directly indicate the symbolic meaning of “ink and ink”, that is, the meaning of “rules”. This is the result of Mr. Yang's profound understanding of Chinese culture.
  It can be seen that Mr. Yang Xianyi's translation is characterized by fidelity to the original text, but at the same time, literal translation, domestication and ellipsis are adopted in the selection of words. Poetry translation is not only a linguistic transformation, but also a dialogue between cultures. This dialogue is not only in the text, but also has a great relationship with the author's culture, environment and education. In a word, through the detailed comparison and analysis of different versions of the translation, it is not difficult to conclude that it is difficult to translate the translation of poetry, literature and culture when it comes to the translation of poetry, literature and culture. Therefore, translation is a kind of re creation. “ (Li Jingru, 2016) this also explains why Mr. Yang's own main style shows the reasons for the choice of words, and fully embodies the influence of the translator's main style on the choice of translation strategies.
  In the English version of Yang Xianyi's ”Li Sao“, from the skill of selection, the pursuit of consistency in the law, the aesthetic sense of the art and the understanding of the Western readers; the rhetorical changes in rhetoric, the appropriate use of exaggeration, the exaggeration of romantic sentiments, and the selection of cultural loaded words, Yang Xian In order to make the translation more acceptable to readers, students avoid certain cultural connotations. From the point of view of translation strategy, Mr. Yang Xianyi adopted a ”faithful“ translation strategy, using the method of literal translation, naturalization and omission in the selection of words, which fully embodies the translator's main style in different life experiences, life road, personal accomplishment, academic background, aesthetic taste and even sex. Thus, the formation of the main body's own style has a great influence on the use of translation techniques and strategies. Therefore, translation is creative. It is not only a realm, a cultural collision, but also a personalized pursuit.
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