Present situation and Countermeasures of the development of

时间:2018-07-30 作者:博学论文网
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        Abstract: with the continuous development of various social undertakings, the level of the national economy has been continuously improved, and the level of the people's medical security has been promoted rapidly, thus promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. The vaccine with prevention as the main function is a special kind of medicine. The whole course of the transportation of the vaccine needs cold chain equipment. It is necessary to keep the effect of the vaccine at 2 centigrade and 8. However, there are still many problems in the development of pharmaceutical cold chain logistics in China. This paper analyzes the development status and existing problems of vaccine cold chain logistics industry, and puts forward development countermeasures.
  
  Key words: vaccine cold chain; development status; development strategy;
  
  At present, the cold transportation of vaccines through cold chain distribution is inevitable. However, under the influence of management and other problems, many vaccine drugs have not been able to run through the whole process, and the problem of chain breaking often occurs. At this stage, the development of our country is not mature, the integration of upstream and downstream is not enough, the system of comprehensive system of vaccine drug cold chain logistics system has not yet formed. Therefore, there is a long way to go in the future. In the case of continuous reduction of transportation cost, the information process of cold chain logistics is not broken. It is very important to establish a cold chain logistics system for vaccine drugs.
  
  1, the current situation of the development of the cold chain logistics industry of the vaccine
  
  With the continuous development of various social undertakings, the level of national economy has been continuously improved, and the level of people's medical security has been promoted rapidly, which has promoted the development of the pharmaceutical industry. The vaccine with the main function of prevention is a special kind of medicine. The whole process of vaccine logistics transportation needs cold chain.
  
  (1) the demand for the cold chain of vaccines continues to grow.
  
  Because of the state's increasing attention to the prevention and control of all kinds of infectious diseases, and the expanding scope of national immunization planning, for example, the 6 categories in the middle of the 1970s to 1992 have been extended to the 17 categories in 2016, and the awareness of the residents' vaccination has changed significantly, and the growth of the vaccine market is very rapid. . In addition, the overall market size of China's vaccine in 2005 was 6 billion 500 million yuan, and in 2015, it had increased to 24 billion 500 million yuan, maintaining an average annual growth rate of 20%, and it also needed a more powerful and perfect cold chain logistics to run. Take the rabies vaccine as an example, the number of people bitten by animals every year is about 1, and about 5 million people. The overall demand for rabies vaccine for one year is 6, 000 ~7, 5 million, and the demand for the cold chain logistics distribution is huge.
  
  (2) the cold chain logistics of the vaccine has been gradually paid attention to.
  
  As early as 2005, China promulgated the regulations on the management of vaccine circulation and vaccination (hereinafter referred to as the regulations on Management)。 The regulations on the storage, transportation and refrigeration of vaccines were stipulated in the regulations on the management of vaccines.  Management standards, etc., the “drug cold chain logistics technology and management standard” has become the “blueprint” of the related standards of the drug cold chain logistics management, providing a standard basis for it. In addition, the enterprise, as the third party pharmaceutical cold chain logistics, has been fully aware of the storage technology of special medicines such as vaccines, and began to implement effective and standardized cold chain process. Then, with the technical requirements of different vaccines, new technology has been developed, which is popularized in the drug cold chain. For example, real-time temperature and humidity monitoring, RFID and other technologies have also promoted the standardization and attention of the drug cold chain logistics.
  
  2. Problems in the distribution of the cold chain of vaccines
  
  (1) cold chain delivery costs are high and lack of sound industry norms
  
  At this stage, the cost of the distribution of the cold chain of the vaccine is high, mainly in the cold chain logistics such as the energy consumption and efficiency of the refrigerated vehicles, and in the cold chain logistics environment, there are no relevant unified standards in China. This makes the enterprise logistics system high input and low efficiency to a certain extent. The standard of the size of the tray and the cold storage will have a great influence on the efficiency of the loading and unloading. In this process, the storage of the vaccine drugs has not been strictly regulated, even in the regular system of the circulation and management of the vaccine. . Although the drug cold chain logistics technology and management standards provide a “blueprint” for the drug cold chain logistics, our country has not formed an industry standard for the logistics system of the cold chain distribution of the enterprise vaccine drugs at present, at the same time, the supervision department's supervision is insufficient, and many problems of distribution of the vaccine have been caused. This high is the first issue.
  
  (2) the information technology of vaccine cold chain logistics is backward and lacks professional talents.
  
  Although some enterprises have applied the latest technology to the cold chain logistics distribution, such as temperature and humidity monitoring, RFID and so on, these technologies have not been popularized by the factors such as cost and other factors. At present, the cold chain system has not been improved in the enterprise, the temperature monitoring is difficult to realize the whole process, the information sharing can not be talked about. Because the information can not spread effectively and timely, it makes the whole cold chain system difficult to run efficiently. The development of the cold chain logistics information technology of the vaccine can not be separated from the training of professionals. It needs a scientific, safe and professional management of the cold chain logistics system, which involves many industries and multi - family knowledge. However, at present, there are very few personnel in the management of the cold chain logistics of vaccine drugs and vaccine drugs, which is very unfavorable to the scientific and rational management of the cold chain logistics of the vaccine.
  
  (3) the degree of marketization is low, and the development of vaccine cold chain logistics is lagging behind.
  
  The development of the cold chain logistics of vaccines and drugs has shown great potential in some degree. However, the construction of related enterprises and the serious shortage of relevant employees have resulted in the low development level in this field, which is still in the primary stage, which is mainly characterized by obvious regional characteristics. The development of limited scale, leading enterprise service projects is even more rare. Because the development of the whole vaccine cold chain logistics market is not perfect, the development of many third party logistics enterprises is not perfect, including the related vaccine testing and the lack of supervision institutions, the enterprise is difficult to form a complete system in the construction of the vaccine cold chain logistics system, so it can not solve the cold chain. High cost of flow. In addition, the confusion of the market environment due to the excessive pursuit of lower competitive prices has become an important factor hindering the development of the enterprise. In addition, the state's supervision of refrigerated drugs has been stricter. Meanwhile, the cold chain logistics industry is facing new challenges.
  
  3. Countermeasures for improving the cold chain logistics distribution of enterprise vaccine
  
  (1) shorten the transit time and reduce costs.
  
  The cold chain is composed of four parts: freezing processing, freezing storage, refrigerating transportation and distribution, and refrigerating sales. The whole process of cold chain logistics can be followed by “standards”. Products in a low temperature environment, including storage time, temperature, and their own tolerance, will affect the final quality. Judging from the “standard”, the quality temperature of the frozen food is largely determined by the product temperature. When the temperature is lower, the quality will be longer. In the course of the operation of enterprises, the time limit of constant temperature exists. When the time of the vaccine is in the cryogenic device, the quality will be damaged once the time limit is exceeded. Therefore, under the best possible conditions, the enterprise must shorten the running time of the vaccine by vehicle scheduling, route design and other means.
  
  (2) using advanced equipment and technology to continuously improve information technology.
  
  If the low temperature logistics level of enterprises is to be promoted rapidly, it is imperative to further update and transform the current cryogenic storage and transportation facilities. In addition, the whole course of transportation based on refrigerated vehicles can be monitored in real time, and the efficient dispatch of empty cars. The enterprise needs to make the reasonable formulation of the transportation plan under the premise of convenient examination and approval. In addition, relevant departments should build a unified standard system based on the exchange and management of network information. Based on the timeliness of the vaccine entry and exit, the electronic system is constructed, and all the information including the name category, the location, the existing number, the storage time and the shelf life of the refrigerated vaccine will be archived to ensure the efficiency of the logistics management.
  
  (3) fully develop the third party vaccine cold chain logistics.
  
  Cold chain logistics is a high end logistics which has high infrastructure, technical content and operation requirements in logistics business. It is also a weak link of enterprises. For the production enterprises of the vaccine, it is the responsibility of third party logistics to bear the whole vaccine cold chain, not only to avoid the purchase of a large number of low temperature devices but also to save the cost, but also to reduce the management link, completely avoid the problem of the broken transportation chain, and in the R & D and production and other links, the enterprise can be more For concentration. In accordance with the actual situation, enterprises should integrate the resources of the cold chain logistics of the vaccine according to the existing resources, set up an independent cold chain logistics department, constantly improve the information technology, build the cold chain logistics network systematization, constantly improve the information technology, and apply more new technology to the cold chain of the vaccine, and strengthen the new technology. Cooperate with other producers and service providers in the industry chain to give full play to the role of cold chain logistics and achieve win-win results.
  
  4. Conclusion
  
  Medicine is an important industry which concerns the development of the national economy and the whole society. At present, with the continuous improvement and development of science and technology and industry, the development of pharmaceuticals has also been promoted, and some special drugs can not be separated from the development of cold chain logistics, such as vaccines and blood products. The development of pharmaceutical industry has promoted the demand of cold chain logistics, and the development of cold chain logistics has also played a positive role in vaccines and blood products. As one of the preventive drugs, vaccines have begun to pay attention to the prevention of disease while the concept of national health is constantly changing. Therefore, we can see that the demand for all kinds of vaccines is rising in a straight line, and the cold chain of the vaccine has been perfected. The cold chain logistics has a very big development space.
  
  Reference
  
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  [3] Chen Wenbin. Study on the operation and management of cold chain logistics in China [D]. Shanghai International Studies University, 2014.  
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